THE POLITICAL MEANING OF THE
HACHIMAN CULT
IN ANCIENT AND EARLY MEDIEVAL JAPAN





ROSS LYNN BENDER



Dissertation
Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures
Columbia University
1980



TITLE PAGE



ABSTRACT



TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



INTRODUCTION



CHAPTER ONE -- THE EARLY STATE CULT OF HACHIMAN


The Rise of Usa


Hachiman and the Construction of the Daibutsu


Hachiman's Oracular Function


CHAPTER TWO -- THE DOKYO INCIDENT


Dokyo's Attempt on the Throne


The Political Meaning of Hachiman in Nara Japan


CHAPTER THREE -- GREAT BODHISATTVA AND IMPERIAL ANCESTOR


Hachiman Daibosatsu


The Foundation of Iwashimizu


Imperial Ancestor


From Oracles to Omens


Iwashimizu in the State Shrine System


Festivals


Prayers


The Masakado Oracle


CHAPTER FOUR -- THE MINAMOTO CULT OF HACHIMAN


Origins of the Minamoto Cult


Minamoto Yoritomo and the Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine


War Prayers


Other Prayers


Omens and Oracles


Haiga


Conclusion


CHAPTER FIVE -- MEDIEVAL IMAGES OF HACHIMAN


Aspects of the Hachiman Cult


Martial Images


Tutelary Images


Oracular Images


CHAPTER SIX -- THE POLITICAL MEANING OF THE HACHIMAN CULT


APPENDIX I -- THE ORIGIN OF THE HACHIMAN CULT


APPENDIX II -- YUMI YAWATA


BIBLIOGRAPHY


GLOSSARY


TABLES


Use of "Akitsumikami" in Shoku Nihongi Imperial Edict Prefaces

Prayers to Hachiman at Tsurgaoka




Also by Ross Bender:


The Hachiman Cult and the Dokyo Incident


Metamorphosis of a Deity: The Image of Hachiman in Yumi Yawata


Hachiman River -- Religious Meanings of the Hachiman Cult: Releasing Living Beings in Hojogawa


Performative Loci of the Imperial Edicts in Nara Japan, 749-70


Changing the Calendar: Royal Political Theology and the Suppression of the Tachibana Naramaro Conspiracy of 757




USA HACHIMANGU

IWASHIMIZU HACHIMANGU

TSURUGAOKA HACHIMANGU

TAMUKEYAMA HACHIMANGU

Online Resources from Kokugakuin University:

Dictionary of Shinto
Online Publications from Institute of Japanese Classics and Culture